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You know I’m a huge fan of the company Rogue Amoeba and you’ve heard me sing the virtues of Audio Hijack at least 237 times so far. I have also mentioned their application Loopback a few times in the past but I’ve never done a full review of what you can do with this amazing tool. Let’s fix that oversight today.

I should mention that if you want to truly learn to use Loopback, in my humble opinion the best way to do that is to watch the video tutorial I did recently for ScreenCastsOnline. It’s a subscription service but you can get a free trial and watch this tutorial. I’m not just shilling for ScreenCastsOnline by suggesting this. I’ll explain Loopback to you today, but if you buy it and you want to learn the tool inside and out, my tutorials are a really good way to do that.

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The Problem to be Solved

Let’s start with the basic problem to be solved. In order to have people hear your audio, you have to send it to them from a physical microphone. This physical device can be a fancy big-girl mic like a Heil PR-40 or something as simple as the internal mic built into your Mac.

But what if you want someone to hear something other than your voice? Let’s say you’ve got an audio recording that you can play on your Mac in QuickTime? How would you share that audio in real-time? QuickTime is an application, not a physical hardware device, so you can’t just choose it from the Sound Input Preference Pane.

You don’t have to be a podcaster to want to be able to do something like this. With all of the video conference calling going on for school and work and just plain socializing, there are plenty of opportunities where you might want to be able to share audio with other people.

Loopback Interface & Pass-Thru Devices

The interface for Loopback has a left column where it lists all of your devices. These will be your virtual devices which will be made up of physical devices and other virtual devices you’ve previously created.

The right half of the interface has three columns: Sources, Output Channels, and Monitors


Let’s say I’m a teacher and I need a way to pipe my voice from my microphone and the audio from QuickTime to my students on a Zoom call. In the left column, I’ll hit the plus button at the bottom that’s labeled “New Virtual Device”. This will create a virtual device in the left column entitled Loopback Audio. You’ll also get the same name in the right half of the interface and it will be highlighted inviting you to rename it.

Let’s rename it to Mic + QuickTime. If you forget to rename it right away, you’ll always have a little pencil to the right of the name to enable editing.

Before doing anything else, on the right side, we immediately have a block under Sources called Pass-Thru and under Output Channels, it has a block called Channels 1 & 2. Pass-Thru is what Loopback calls a virtual device.

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A Pass-Thru (virtual) device is what allows you to use application combined with physical devices as a single input to another application. If we want QuickTime to be an input to Zoom, we need to create a Pass-Thru device in-between these two applications. The crazy thing is that virtual devices can be inputs and outputs at the same time. In our case, QuickTime is an app that goes as an input to a Pass-Thru virtual device and then the output of that same Pass-Thru virtual device becomes the input to Zoom. It’s an odd concept but once you come to peace with it, it makes perfect sense.

Now back to our Mic + QuickTime example. I said that there’s a Source column and there’s a plus sign next to it with a little dropdown. We want to add two sources, our physical microphone, and the application QuickTime. Under the + dropdown we can see our currently running applications, Special Sources which we’ll come back to later, our physical Audio Devices, and any Virtual Devices you may have already created.

If QuickTime isn’t running, you also get an option to Select Application and add it from the Finder. We can repeat this process, hit the plus button, and now choose our microphone. As I’m working on this, my microphone is called Shure Digital.

As we add in these sources, they get neatly stacked in the left column. We can delete the default Pass-Thru virtual device that was there when we first started by simply selecting the block and hitting command-delete. This is the way you delete all sorts of things in Loopback. But here’s a warning – there is NO undo in Loopback! No takesies backsies. Luckily things are very easy to recreate in Loopback so it’s not too big of a deal.

With this bare-bones setup, we can now pipe audio from our mic or QuickTime or even both at the same time. Simply open up Sound Preferences and flip to the Input tab and choose Mic + QuickTime. Now in Zoom (or Skype or FaceTime or whatever tool you’re using) when you look at the audio input settings, there too you’ll see an option to choose Mic + QuickTime.

If this is all Loopback could do, it would be a pretty powerful tool, but it does a lot more. I probably should have told you sooner, but Loopback is $100. I use Loopback all the time but that is a lot of money so let’s see if it can do more for you to be worth that hefty price tag.

In our virtual source Mic + QuickTime, each source block we dropped in has quite a few options. There’s an on/off toggle on each block so you could keep QuickTime off most of the time and only toggle it on when you’re going to use it, all without changing your input. Or maybe while QuickTime is playing, you want to temporarily mute your microphone so you can eat a crunchy Apple while your students are listening to something.

Output Channels

By default each source is on both the left and right channels. This is shown in a really beautiful and unusual interface element. Remember I said we’ve got an Output Channel block? The input sources have little virtual wires going into that Output Channels block. You can select these individually and then delete them, and even draw new wires.

Let’s say your QuickTime files are stereo music with audio on both channels. You could move the little virtual wires so both the left and right channel of the QuickTime block went into just the left channel of the Output block. Likewise, you could make your mic go into just the right channel of the output block.

You accomplish that by deleting the wires you don’t like and then click-dragging to draw new wires. I don’t use this feature myself but I can definitely see it could provide real value and it’s really fun to draw the wires. While the audio is being passed through this virtual source, you can see meters on the left and right channels for both blocks and you can see the meters moving differently on the two channels for the output block. Your listeners would still get a stereo file but it would be your voice on one side and QuickTime on the other.

Each Source block has a chevron to reveal more options. Within the options, both applications and physical devices have a volume slider. By using this slider you could play some music while you’re talking and have the music at a much lower volume than your microphone. Maybe you’re doing commentary on a movie and you have the movie playing in the TV app on your Mac, you could lower the volume of that app while you do your commentary.

Application blocks, such as the one we made for QuickTime, also have a checkbox to Mute when capturing which is checked by default. This means that you will not hear QuickTime while using this virtual source we’ve created. Applications using the Loopback virtual audio device will frequently want to perform their own audio play-through, but simply uncheck the Mute when capturing checkbox if you need to hear that audio source.


There’s another scenario though where you don’t want to hear just the application, QuickTime player in our case, but you would like to monitor the audio from both QuickTime and your own microphone. The last column in Loopback is called Monitors. Just like with Sources, you can add a monitor using the little plus button, but your options are only actual physical devices.

From this Monitor block, you can change the volume of your output device and again use the little wires to modify what you hear in the left and right channels.

Speaking of hearing, like all of Rogue Amoeba tools, Loopback 2 was built with full VoiceOver accessibility from the ground up. Even with my rudimentary skills in VoiceOver, I was able to figure out how to delete one of the wires and put it back! I don’t know how they manage to make something so graphically interesting for those with vision work beautifully for those using a screen reader.

Special Sources

Earlier when we were dropping in sources like applications and physical devices, I mentioned that you can add Special Sources. These are Finder, Siri, Text to Speech and VoiceOver.

Adding a Finder source allows you to capture sound played by the Finder itself as well as QuickLook. Let’s say you’ve got an mp3 file in the Finder, you can hit the space bar to launch it in QuickLook and it will start playing while Loopback routes that audio where you want it. I tested the Quicklook feature and that worked but I made some other system sounds like deleting a file from Finder and it didn’t seem to capture it. I’m not sure why that didn’t work, and yes I DID double check that Mute when capturing was unchecked.

If you’re trying to teach someone how to use Siri on their Mac (or maybe you just want to make fun of Siri), you can add it as a Special source. You could create a virtual device with Siri plus your microphone and then use that virtual device as the input to a QuickTime audio recording. Think of the hours of entertainment!

Text to Speech is the next option in Special Sources. Just last week I gave a tip on how you can change the voice on text to speech to the nicer Siri voice using the keystroke option-escape to read text. You could make a Loopback Pass-Thru virtual device with the input source set to Text to Speech and then set it as the input to QuickTime. From there you could make a new audio recording and create a file reading the story you didn’t have time to read with your eyeballs. Last week I did this with Audio Hijack but you can actually do it entirely with Loopback.


The last Special Source is VoiceOver. Imagine you’re working with a screen reader and you want to show someone how you’re doing something. You could let Loopback capture VoiceOver and pipe it to a virtual device along with your microphone and then pipe that to your audio/video-conferencing application. You could use it to teach VoiceOver. You could even use it to show a developer bugs in their software by recording what you’re hearing. The possibilities are endless.

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Bottom Line and Public Service Announcement

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I’ve tried to give you examples to inspire your imagination on what cool stuff you could do with Loopback. This application is essential to what I do – in fact, if it weren’t for Loopback, the live audience would never be able to hear playback of my recording application along with my voice. Loopback is even more powerful when paired with Audio Hijack from Rogue Amoeba.

I want to do a public service announcement here though. If you get too crazy with Loopback you could start to have unintended consequences. While I was writing this up I was making lots of experimental Loopback virtual sources. I played back something from QuickTime and suddenly it was coming out of my MacBook Pro’s internal speakers, and also from my external display’s speakers with a slight delay. I couldn’t figure out what was happening!

I had created multiple Loopback virtual devices that had QuickTime in them and even though I had Mute when capturing turned on, I had a Monitor set to my display and of course, it was slightly delayed from the normal speaker output on my Mac.

I recommend that if you start having as much fun with Loopback as I do, turn off the virtual devices in the left sidebar until you’re ready to use them. It also makes your dropdown list of input devices way shorter if you turn off your more specialized devices. Don’t forget you turned them off though or you’ll be really confused when they don’t show up when you need them!

I know $100 is a lot of money for people but Loopback by Rogue Amoeba is alone in its capabilities to combine physical devices and applications into virtual sources with so much flexibility. You can find a free trial of Loopback at RogueAmoeba.com and if you can’t spell Rogue Amoeba, there’s a link in the shownotes.


As of Mar 2028, 38.321 (MAC Specification) is almost completed and of course it is evolving continuously evolving. In this page, I will describe on NR MAC and try to explain in the comparison to LTE MAC whenever it is possible. If you are familiar with LTE MAC, this comparison would help you a lot to understand NR MaC.

High level MAC functionality and its interaction with lower and higher layer can be summarized as in the following diagram.

At high level view, NR MAC function/operation is very similar to LTE MAC function/operation. For your reference, I put the NR MAC function and LTE MAC function side-by-side as below.

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provided to upper layers

  • data transfer
  • radio resource allocation
  • data transfer
  • radio resource allocation

MAC Functions

  • mapping between logical channels and transport channels
  • multiplexing of MAC SDUs
  • demultiplexing of MAC SDUs
  • scheduling information reporting;
  • error correction through HARQ;
  • logical channel prioritisation.
  • mapping between logical channels and transport channels;
  • multiplexing of MAC SDUs
  • demultiplexing of MAC SDUs
  • scheduling information reporting
  • error correction through HARQ
  • priority handling between UEs
  • priority handling between logical channels of one MAC entity
  • Logical Channel prioritisation
  • transport format selection
  • radio resource selection for SL


expected from physical layer

  • data transfer services;
  • signalling of HARQ feedback;
  • signalling of Scheduling Request;
  • measurements (e.g. Channel Quality Indication (CQI)).
  • data transfer services;
  • signalling of HARQ feedback;
  • signalling of Scheduling Request;
  • measurements (e.g. Channel Quality Indication (CQI)).

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There is another way of describing MAC functionality. It is to describe about each separate procedures that are performed by MAC as summarized below. This is the way I like to describe MAC layer. When MAC and PHY layer specification gets finalized, I would create separate pages for each of these process.

Procedure Name


Random Access ProcedureGet the initial uplink grant and perform synchronization to network
DL-SCH data transfer (NW)Do everything needed to perform DL Data Transfer (DCI-Scheduling, HARQ etc)
UL-SCH data scheduling (NW)Schedule UL data transmission by sending DCI X (UL Grant)
UL-SCH data transfer (UE) Do everything needed to perform UL Data Transfer (DCI X decoding, HARQ, multiplexing and assembly)
SR-Scheduling Request (UE)Send the request to Network to get a UL Grant
DRX - Discontinous ReceptionControl UE's PDCCH monitoring activity in special pattern mainly to save energy consumption
SPS - Semi Persisent SchedulingScheduling DL/UL transmission in special pattern to reduce scheduling overhead
PCH ReceptionMonitoring Paging message in special period
BCH ReceptionGet basic information on cell (MIB and SFN)

The illustration shown above may show you a little bit detailed picture of MAC process, but it may not be so clear about the channel mapping unless you follow through each lines very carefully. In terms of channel mapping, the tables in 38.321 would be clearer and simple to understand and my illustration to the right would be even more clear and intuitive :).

As you see, most of channels from Logical channel to Transport channel is one-to-one or many-to-one relation, but BCCH case it maps to BCH and DL-SCH.

What does this mean ? Does this mean that a BCCH message maps both to BCH and DL-SCH simultaneously ?

No. It means some BCCH data maps to BCH and some BCCH data maps to DL-SCH. If you are familiar with LTE, you would know there are largely two types of BCCH in LTE. One is MIB and the others are SIBs. MIB goes through BCCH-BCH path and SIBs go through BCCH-DL SCH path. NR would use the same pattern of channel mapping.

Refer to Channel Mapping page to see how this mapping embedded into the mapping with wider scope.

Following shows the overal MAC PDU struction of NR and LTE MAC. You would notice here, all the MAC subhaeders are located at the beginning of a MAC PDU in LTE, but in NR MAC subheaders are located right in front of corresponding SDU(Payload). In other words, in LTE MAC Subheader and correponding data are located in different region, but in NR MAC subheader and corresponding data(payload)are in the same region sitting next to each other.

Followings shows header structure of MAC subheaders in NR and LTE. Overall structure would look similar but in NR there is no 'E' field. NR does not require 'E' field since one subheader is located right in front of the corresponding payload. There is no case where multiple headers are sitting next to each other. So 'E' filed is not needed (NOTE : 'E' field indicate whether any other MACheader come after the current MAC subheader).

Followings shows the structure of MAC Subheaders in NR and meaning of each field in the sub headers.

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< 38.321- Figure 6.1.2-1 R/F/LCID/L MAC subheader with 8-bit L field >

< 38.321-Figure6.1.2-2R/F/LCID/L MAC subheader with 16-bit L field >

< 38.321-Figure6.1.2-3R/LCID MAC subheader>




This field indicates Logical Channel ID. There is one LCID field per MAC subheader. The LCID field size is 6 bits;


This indicates Length of the corresponding MAC SDU or variable-sized MAC CE in bytes. There is one L field per MAC subheader except for subheaders corresponding to fixed-sized MAC CEs and padding. The size of the L field is indicated by the F field;


F stands for 'Format'. It indicates the size of the Length field. There is one F field per MAC subheader except for subheaders corresponding to fixed-sized MAC CEs and padding. The size of the F field is 1 bit.

  • 1 indicates 16 bits of the Length field

Followings table shows the LCID field in MAC Subheader based on 38.321 v15.1 (Mar 2018 version).

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Followings table shows the LCID field in MAC Subheader based on 38.321 v15.2 (Jun 2018 version).

Comparing to v15.1, followings are added or modified.

  • DL : Recommended bit rate is added
  • UL : CCCH is divided into two different types, CCCH of size other than 48bits and CCCH of size of 48 bits


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